A capacitor will charge when the voltage applied to it is greater than its already charged voltage state. The rate of charge depends on the current available which is a factor of the power supply you are using and any circuit resistance (including the power supply internal resistance).
It is possible to damage a capacitor by charging too quickly but we have no data on this. It is always good practice to limit the speed of charging by the use of a series resistance but in practice, a power supply may already be the limiting factor.
The charging time is exponential but the time to fully charge is approximately 5CR. seconds.